International name: ammonium nitrate
Chemical formula: NH4NO3
Synonyms: ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate
Appearance: hygroscopic crystals of white color
Packaging and storage: a bag weighing 25 kg; up to 2 years
Manufacturing: Russia

 

Description
Ammonium nitrate (ammonium / ammonium) nitrate) is a chemical compound NH4NO3, a salt of nitric acid. Used as a component of explosives and as a nitrogen fertilizer. Ammonium nitrate is an ammonia-nitrate fertilizer. Granulated ammonium nitrate is less hygroscopic, less caking when stored, and retains good dispersibility. [1] Ammonium nitrate is produced only with the use of conditioning additives containing magnesium, calcium, sulfate or sulfate with phosphate. Additives with sulfate and phosphate require the presence of surfactants in the fertilizer. When dissolved, a strong heat absorption occurs (similar to potassium nitrate), which significantly slows down dissolution. Therefore, for the preparation of saturated solutions of ammonium nitrate, heating is used, while the solid substance is filled up in small portions.
Also, the salt is soluble in ammonia, pyridine, methanol, ethanol.

 

Types of ammonium nitrate:
Almost always this fertilizer is produced with the use of additives of various elements. The availability of such a wide range is explained by the wide geography of the use of ammonium nitrate, and an attempt to adapt to the needs of agriculture in different climatic zones.
Ammonium is simple. This species was developed very first. The main idea laid in its foundation is to provide agricultural crops with a powerful supply of nitrogen. The use of ammonium nitrate in agro-industrial complexes of different countries has repeatedly confirmed its high efficiency as an optimal starting fertilizer for most plants cultivated in the middle belt. This kind of ammonium nitrate can replace in equilibrium other popular mineral fertilizing - carbamide (urea).
Ammonia, brand B. It is divided into varieties, the first and second. Excellent for use and store at home. Sold in stores for gardeners, and has a convenient packaging, from 1 kg. For what it can be needed at home? For flowers that are ill after the winter spent on the windowsill, for the primary fertilizing of seedlings, which, in conditions of a short daylight, vitally requires nitrogen.
Ammonia-potassium (K2NO3). People call it "Indian saltpeter". This species is especially effective for early spring fertilizing of fruit trees. It is also ideally suited for presowing application, and subsequent top dressings for a tomato, because potassium improves the taste of the fruit.
Limestone-ammonium (Norwegian saltpetre). It is simple and granular. Contains calcium. Its production is regulated by TU 2181-001-77381580-2006. The composition of this agrochemical, in addition to the main, includes additional substances - potassium, calcium and magnesium.
Lime-ammonium nitrate is characterized by high strength of granules, does not cake when stored. It is alarming that it is treated with fuel oil, and this fraction lives in the soil for a very long time, causing it quite significant damage.

 

Types of ammonium nitrate:

Almost always this fertilizer is produced with the use of additives of various elements. The availability of such a wide range is explained by the wide geography of the use of ammonium nitrate, and an attempt to adapt to the needs of agriculture in different climatic zones.

Ammonium is simple. This species was developed very first. The main idea laid in its foundation is to provide agricultural crops with a powerful supply of nitrogen. The use of ammonium nitrate in agro-industrial complexes of different countries has repeatedly confirmed its high efficiency as an optimal starting fertilizer for most plants cultivated in the middle belt. This kind of ammonium nitrate can replace in equilibrium other popular mineral fertilizing - carbamide (urea).

Ammonia, brand B. It is divided into varieties, the first and second. Excellent for use and store at home. Sold in stores for gardeners, and has a convenient packaging, from 1 kg. For what it can be needed at home? For flowers that are ill after the winter spent on the windowsill, for the primary fertilizing of seedlings, which, in conditions of a short daylight, vitally requires nitrogen.

Ammonia-potassium (K2NO3). People call it "Indian saltpeter". This species is especially effective for early spring fertilizing of fruit trees. It is also ideally suited for presowing application, and subsequent top dressings for a tomato, because potassium improves the taste of the fruit.

Limestone-ammonium (Norwegian saltpetre). It is simple and granular. Contains calcium. Its production is regulated by TU 2181-001-77381580-2006. The composition of this agrochemical, in addition to the main, includes additional substances - potassium, calcium and magnesium.
Lime-ammonium nitrate is characterized by high strength of granules, does not cake when stored. It is alarming that it is treated with fuel oil, and this fraction lives in the soil for a very long time, causing it quite significant damage.

 

Properties

Molecular weight 80.04 a. The velocity of detonation is 2570 m / s. The melting point is 169.6 ° C, when heated above this temperature, a gradual decomposition of the substance begins, and at a temperature of 210 ° C complete decomposition takes place. The boiling point at elevated pressure is 235 ° C

 

Receiving

Ammonium nitrate is obtained by neutralizing nitric acid with gaseous ammonia:

HNO3 + NH3 (gas) → NH4NO3 + 144.9 kJ

The resulting solution of ammonium nitrate is evaporated, crystallized and finally dried. Various impurities are added to the resulting substance, improving its physicochemical properties.

In industrial production, anhydrous ammonia and concentrated nitric acid are used. The reaction proceeds quite rapidly, with the release of a large amount of heat. Conducting such a process in artisanal conditions is extremely dangerous (although under conditions of large dilution with water, ammonium nitrate can be easily obtained). After the solution is formed, usually at a concentration of 83%, excess water is evaporated to a melt state in which the ammonium nitrate content is 95-99.5%, depending on the grade of the finished product. For use as a fertilizer, the melt is granulated in sprayers, dried, cooled and coated with formulations to prevent caking. The color of the granules varies from white to colorless. Ammonium nitrate for use in chemistry is usually dehydrated, as it is very hygroscopic and the percentage of water in it is almost impossible to obtain.

 

Application

As fertilizers of the AIC.

Most of the ammonium nitrate is used either directly as a good nitrogen fertilizer, or as a semi-product for obtaining other fertilizers. To prevent the creation of ammonium nitrate-based explosives, components that reduce the explosiveness and detonation properties of pure ammonium nitrate, such as chalk (calcium carbonate), are added to fertilizers that are commercially available.

Like explosives. The most widely used in industry and mining are mixtures of ammonium nitrate with various types of hydrocarbon combustible materials, other explosives, as well as multicomponent mixtures:

• Ammonium nitrate / diesel fuel (ASDT)

• liquid mixture of ammonium nitrate / hydrazine (Astrolite)

• water-filled industrial explosives (Aquanal, Aquanit, etc.)

• mixtures with other explosives (Ammonite, Detonit, etc.)

• mixture with aluminum powder (ammonal)

Ammonium nitrate is highly hygroscopic, therefore it is not used as an explosive, since explosive properties are lost in raw form.

Safety requirements

Pure ammonium nitrate is not sensitive to shock or friction, but under certain conditions it has explosive properties. As a result, it is also used as raw material for the production of ammonia-salt explosives - ammonites (mixtures of NH4NO3 with wood flour and other organic materials with the addition of nitro-products), ammonals (mixtures containing aluminum powder), etc. They explode only from the detonator. Explosions of pure ammonium nitrate can be caused by the thermal decomposition of salt in a confined space. In this case, gaseous decomposition products (NOg), apparently, serve as catalysts for further decomposition, leading to an explosion. Explosiveness of NH4NO3 increases in the presence of mineral acids and easily oxidizable materials and decreases with increasing moisture of the salt. With a content of more than 3% water, ammonium nitrate does not explode even when the detonator detonates. To prevent spontaneous decomposition, stabilizers are added to it - substances binding the decomposition of nitric acid and NO3 or releasing ammonia during interaction with NH4NO3, which neutralizes nitric acid and reduces nitrogen oxides to elemental nitrogen. Stabilizers are urea (0.05-0.1% of the weight of niter), calcium and magnesium carbonates

  

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