International name: Nitric Acid

Synonyms: strong vodka

Chemical formula: HNO3

Appearance: colorless liquid with a pungent odor

Production: Ukraine

Packaging and storage: eurocube, p / e canister 10/20 l; up to 2 years

Description

Nitric acid refers to with monobasic acids and is a strong reagent. It is a transparent liquid that can have a yellowish tinge with long storage in a warm room, since at a positive (room) temperature, nitrogen oxides accumulate in it. When heated or interacted with direct sunlight, it becomes brown due to the process of nitrogen dioxide emission. When in contact with air, it smokes. This acid is a strong oxidant with a sharp unpleasant odor, which reacts with most metals (except for platinum, rhodium, gold, tantalum, iridium and some others), converting them into oxides or nitrates. This acid is very soluble in water, and in any ratio, it is limited in ether.

When heated, nitric acid decomposes according to the same reaction. Nitric acid can be distilled without decomposition only under reduced pressure (this boiling point at atmospheric pressure is found by extrapolation). Gold, some platinum group metals and tantalum are inert to nitric acid in the entire range of concentrations, the rest of the metals react with it, the reaction process is determined by its concentration.

Properties

Unlimitedly soluble in water with release of heat. Not flammable. Upon contact with organic substances nitric acid causes them to self-ignition, strongly smoke.

Under the influence of nitric acid, metals (with the exception of Pt, Rh, Ir, Nb, Zr, Ta, Au) are converted to nitrates or oxides, sulfur is vigorously oxidized to sulfuric acid, phosphorus to phosphoric acid, organic compounds are oxidized and nitrated. In dilute nitric acid, the chrome-nickel steel racks, titanium, in concentrated - pure aluminum, high-silica cast iron, chromium-nickel-silicon steels. In nitric acid of any concentration, glass, quartz, and fluoroplast are resistant.

Concentrated and not concentrated, and also special nitric acid of special purity are produced. Highly concentrated HNO3 is usually brown in color due to the decomposition occurring in the light.

Getting

At present, the production of strongly or slightly concentrated nitric acid goes through the following stages:


1. process of catalytic oxidation of synthetic ammonia;
2. as a result - obtaining a mixture of nitrous gases;
3. water absorption;
4. process of concentration of nitric acid.

Application

The scope of nitric acid is now enormous. It covers many industries, such as:

- Chemical (manufacturing of explosives, organic dyes, plastics, sodium, potassium, plastics, some types of acids, artificial fibers);
- Agricultural (production of nitrogen fertilizers or saltpeter)
- Metallurgical (dissolution and etching of metals)
- Pharmacological (
- The rocket-and-mortar plant (a part of the medicine for the removal of skin formations);
- Jewelry production (determination of purity of precious metals and alloys);
- Military (included in the composition of explosives as a nitrating reagent) (one of the components of rocket fuel);
- Medicine (applicable for skin diseases).

Security requirements

Concentrated nitric acid causes severe skin burns. Diluted acid with frequent contact with the skin can cause eczema. The affected skin is dyed yellow. If swallowed, it causes severe burns. In case of contact with skin or eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water.

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